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    The outrage effect of personal stake, dread, and moral nature on fine dust risk perception moderated by media use
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    Outrage factors are perceived characteristics of risk that provoke emotional responses and influence risk perception by individuals. We investigated outrage factors that are associated with risk perception regarding fine dust. A nationwide online survey (N = 1,000) measured the magnitude of 14 perceived outrage factors and media use in a South Korean population. As a result, the hypothetical three outrage factors of personal stake, dread, and moral nature were found to be influential. The risk perception increased when people perceived that the environmental hazard has personal implications or is associated with fearful images and irresponsible government/corporate actions. The risk perception was also heightened when fine dust was thought to cause large-scale damage to many people simultaneously. Those using news media frequently showed higher risk perception than those using it less frequently. However, heavy media users were affected to a lesser degree by the outrage effects voluntariness and effects on children. The implications of the direct and indirect outrage effect are discussed in light of risk perception studies.